EVALUATION OF WASTEWATER FROM A PUBLIC HEALTHCARE FACILITY IN BENIN CITY, NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF ITS PHYSICOCHEMICAL, BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITIES AND OCCURRENCE OF EXTENDED SPECTRUM BETA LACTAMASE BACTERIAL ISOLATES
This study evaluated the physicochemical and bacteriological qualities of wastewater generated from a public health facility between June and November, 2018. Standard analytical and bacteriological techniques were used to investigate the qualities of the effluent from two separate points. Antibiotic susceptibility study was carried out using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results obtained showed temperature ranged from 28.69 - 28.75 0C, pH 6.99 - 7.04, Biochemical Oxygen Demand 161.31 -164.25 mg/ml, Chemical Oxygen Demand 324.38 -327.63 mg/l, phosphate 145.15 - 146.13 mg/l, Electrical Conductivity 231.69 - 232.53 µS/cm, Settleable Solid 206.44 - 207.88 mg/l and Total Suspended Solid 79.81 -81.05 mg/l. The highest concentration of heavy metal was recorded with iron (12.79-13.11 mg/l). The total heterotrophic bacterial counts ranged from 0.39 - 138.6 x 107 cfu/ml, Coliform counts ranged from 0.3 - 204 x 106 cfu/ml and the Staphylococcal counts ranged from 0.67 - 22 x 105 cfu/ml. The results of the antibiotic susceptibility tests showed that the bacterial isolates possessed 29.21 % resistant to septrin, 5.62 % to chloramphenicol, 24.72 % to sparfloxacin, 6.74 % to ciprofloxacin, 22.47 % to augmentin, 6.74 % to gentamicin, 14.61 % to perfloxacin, 14.61 % to tarivid, 10.11 % streptomycin and 8.99 % to ampicillin. Multiple antibiotic resistance were observed in Klebsiella sp., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis and were found to be extended-spectrum beta-lactamase positive. The presence of a diverse group of multi drug-resistant bacteria in the wastewater could play a major role in the dissemination and spread of disease-causing pathogens in the environment.
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