LARVICIDAL EFFICACY OF THE SYNERGISTIC COMBINATION OF Allium sativum AND Cymbopogon citratus AGAINST Aedes SPECIES LARVAE
The Aedes mosquitoes are important vectors of Zika, chikungunya, yellow fever, and Ross River arboviral diseases. The challenges caused by the over-reliance on chemical insecticides in managing the vectors and as well the diseases they transmit have led to increased emphasis on developing more effective and environmentally friendly alternatives. This study investigated the phytochemicals present in Allium sativum and Cymbopogon citratus mixed together in a ratio of 1:1 and the larvicidal efficacy of their synergistic combination against Aedes mosquito larvae. The phytochemistry of the extracts were determined qualitatively. The test was conducted using different concentrations of 500ppm, 750ppm and 1000ppm, of the larvicidal mixture and mortalities recorded at 24, 48 and 72 hour exposure time. Data were analysed using Analysis of variance and probit analysis. Carbohydrates, tannin, flavonoid, alkaloid, and steroid phytochemicals were present in the mixture. Larval mortality was greater than 80% in all test concentrations at the 24, 48 and 72 hour exposure time. Larval mortality at the different concentrations, did not vary significantly. There was no significant variation (p>0.05) in the mortality of the larvae at different concentrations of the extracts; 500ppm, 750ppm, and 1000ppm as well as the different exposure time (p>0.05). However, a highly significant variation (p<0.01) was observed in the mortality of the larvae exposed at different concentrations throughout the 72 hour period. The calculated LC¬¬50 and LC90 at 72 hours were 123.79ppm and 459.09ppm respectively. The combined extracts of both plant materials showed very high larval potency against the Aedes mosquitoes. This mixture should be considered as possible supplementary or substitute for the control of Aedes sp. larvae.
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