ASSESSING THE UTILITY OF A CYTOKINE IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF CERVICAL INTRAEPITHELIAL NEOPLASM AMONG WOMEN IN BENIN CITY, NIGERIA
Cervical cancer has been recognized as the fourth commonest cancer worldwide with 70 % of deaths from cases occurring from developing countries. The mortality rate among women in Nigeria can be drastically reduced by early specific diagnosis of premalignant lesions. Although Cytokines are not routinely used as diagnostic markers for cervical cancer, this study investigated the strength of Granulocyte Monocyte Colony Stimulating growth Factor (GM-CSF) as an indicator in the prediction of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasm (CIN). The study was carried out at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin City and Department of Chemical Pathology, Edo University Iyamho, Edo state Nigeria, between August, 2017 and January 2019. It was a cross-sectional prospective study. A total of 197 female participants were recruited for this study. Based on histological diagnosis they were grouped as; Negative, CIN 1, CIN 2 and CIN 3. Venous blood was obtained from participants and serum GM-CSF levels were determined using standardized laboratory methods. The results showed a statistically significant elevation of serum GM-CSF in participants with CIN lesions (56.27±1.21ng/ml) compared to those without (33.43±3.03ng/ml). The study also suggests a 56.3% sensitivity and a 95.3% specificity of GM-CSF marker to CIN with an Area under the Curve (AUC) of 0 .907, p<0.001 from the Receivers Operator Curve (ROC). This research suggests the use of GM-CSF as a good marker for screening of those at risk of cervical cancer because of its high prospect to reduce the incidence of false positives. However, because of the low sensitivity, it is recommended that GM-CSF be used as a CIN diagnostic tool in combination with the standard Pap smear test.
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